In order to address Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) in Ethiopia, the government has created a legal and policy environment that is progressive in promoting the rights of women and girls. Ethiopia is a party to various international human rights instruments such as the UN Convention on Eliminating all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE), adopted in 1995, establishes the equal rights of women and men across economic, social and political spheres, including education, employment, and access to and management of resources. In line with the constitution, the government of Ethiopia has taken action in addressing challenges in tackling VAWG and HTP in the legal framework with the adoption of the Revised Family Law (2000) and the Revised Criminal Code (2005) outlawing violence against women and HTPs. Ethiopia has also developed Women Development and Change strategy and package which has prioritizes the elimination of VAWG and harmful practices in the country.
Ethiopia has also developed an enabling policy framework by putting in place the sector Development Plan for Women and Children (2016-2020), the second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) 2015/16 - 2019/20 that was succeeded by the Ten-Year Perspective Plan (2021-2030) with specific targets to end VAWG.
Several more favourable policies and strategies that promote the rights and protection of women along with supporting structures at different levels have also been in place. These include; the establishment of Women, Children and Youth Affairs offices within the justice administration bodies, such as the police, the office of the prosecutor, and the judiciary, both at federal and regional levels. In some regions, specialized units that deal with children's rights issues and violence against women cases have been set up. These include the Child and Women Protection Units within the various police units, a Special Bench for VAW cases within the Federal Criminal Court, child friendly courts, and child crime investigations units within the Federal Attorney General (FAG) and regional Bureaus of Justice (BoJ). In response to the need for prevention as well as provision of coordinated assistance to women and children’s survivors of violence, a National Coordinating Body (NCB) was formed in 2008 (2001 EC). The formation of this NCB with components of both prevention and response to VAWG is very instrumental to ensure provision of standard essential services across all sectors including justice, health care and social services. In addition to the NCB and referral mechanism, the overwhelming majority of the regions have established referral systems for VAWC prevention and response.
Notwithstanding the above mentioned progressive legal frameworks and substantial structural provisions, several factors continue to hamper the fulfilment of women and girls’ lives free of violence and harmful practices. These include:
Discriminatory attitudes and behaviours towards women at the institutional, community, and individual level, that perpetuate violence against women and girls
Gaps in the legal framework that fail to comprehensively address all forms and determinants of violence against women:
Widespread ignorance and failure to implement progressive laws and policies
Insufficient support services for survivors:
Inadequate data and systematic information collection on VAWG and women’s access to justice to inform policy development and monitor progress
With the aim of responding to these gaps, UN Women Ethiopia Country Office (ECO) has developed a Four-year programme on “Preventing Violence Against Women and Girls and Delivering Essential Services to Survivors in Ethiopia”. The over all goal of the programme is to ensure women and girls live a life free of violence. The program envisions to undertake an end evaluation upon conclusion of the programme. This evaluation is strategic in terms of realizing the contributions made by the programme towards ending violence against women and girls in Ethiopia and identifying good practices and lessons learned to inform the next phase, including future programming and initiatives on EVAWG, to support strategic policy decisions. The findings of the evaluation will also be used for organizational learning and accountability.
Therefore, the UN Women Ethiopia Country Office is seeking a team of consultants to conduct the end evaluation of the programme. The evaluation should follow the guiding documents for evaluation at UN Women, including the Evaluation Policy, Evaluation Chapter of the Programme and Operation Manual (POM), the Global Evaluation Reports, Assessment and Analysis System (GERAAS) evaluation report quality checklist, the United Nations System-Wide Action Plan Evaluation Performance Indicator (UN-SWAP EPI) and the UN Women Evaluation Handbook. These documents serve as the frame of reference for the Evaluation Manager and the evaluation consultant(s) for ensuring compliance with the various requirements and assuring the quality of the evaluation report.
1. Description of the Programme
The programme "Preventing Violence Against Women and Girls and Delivering Essential Services to Survivors in Ethiopia” has been implemented since 01 January 2019 with an end date of 31 December 2021 followed by a no cost extension until 31 December 2022. The total estimated budget was for the four years was 4,488,140 USD and actual actual expenditure as of April 2022 was 4,270,723 USD. The program is so far being implemented at the federal level and in the following regions of Ethiopia: Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Gambella, Sidama, and Somali. During its implementation period, major unforeseen events have happened such as the COVID 19 pandemic and the ongoing armed conflict that broke out on November 2022 resulting in changes in the geographic coverage. For example, the programme was not implemented in Tigray, Diredawa and Gambela regions as per original plan while new regions like Afar and SNNPR were targeted.
The Theory of Change for the programme is:
If (1) an enabling legislative and policy environment in line with international standards on EVAWG, including for ending impunity and other forms of discrimination is in place and translated into action; if policies and programmes re informed by the evidence of what works and quality and comparable dat on violence against women and girls; if favorable social norms, attitudes and behaviors are promoted at institutional, community and individual levels to prevent VAWG; if women and girls who experience violence can use available, accessible and quality essential services so the impacts of violence are addressed and perpetrators of VAWG are duly prosecuted; then (2) there will be a substantial reduction in violence against women and girls; because (3) better responses to VAWG are available, violence is being prevented before happens, or before it re-occurs, and those experiencing violence, as well as their dependents, can recover and rebuild their lives with appropriate assistance and support.
The ultimate goal of the four-year programme is that ‘women and girls live a life free of violence’. The programme aims at preventing VAWG and supporting women and girls' survivors it of violence and their access to justice, protection and quality essential services. The expected outcomes are:
Outcome 1: An enabling legislation and policy environment in line with international standards on EVAWG and other forms of discrimination is in place and translated into action;Noting the gap in the existing legal and normative framework, interventions under this outcome include; focusing on creating a conducive legal and policy environment for women and girls to realise their rights. The programme also aims to support the capacity building of women’s organisations and local authorities to advocate for the adoption of gender equal family laws (includes laws on marriage, inheritance, joint administration of property) in Afar and Somali regions that is in line with federal and international laws.
Outcome 2: Favourable social norms, attitudes and behaviours are promoted at community and individual levels to prevent VAWG;
The programme aims to address the root and structural causes of violence through effective prevention strategies that reduce social acceptance of VAWG and change discriminatory attitudes and behaviours. For example, interventions under this outcome includes engendering of education curriculums through mainstreaming gender in textbooks and institutions.
Outcome 3: Women and girls who experience violence can use available, accessible and quality essential services so the impacts of violence are addressed, and perpetrators are held accountable
Awareness created among society in turn increases survivors’ demand for support. The programme under this outcome will thus build the capacity of wide range of service providers, development of clear protocols and guidelines for providing quality VAWG services, including coordination and accountability mechanisms. Increasing availability and access to essential services including justice, policing, social service and coordination will also be a focus of this programme.
With a view to achieving the expected outcomes, the programme has deployed the following strategies:
Knowledge generation, policy advocacy, and data collection and analysis
The programme was continuation of a previous programme(2015-2017) and was followed by an end evaluation. Recommendations and lessons learned from previous programme as identified in the evaluation report has informed this programme. In addition, several consultations held with key government stakeholders, CSOs and development partners during the development of the programme have led to the formation of the programme interventions.
The main implementing partners (IP) under this programme are:
Government: the Ministry of Women and Social Affairs, regional Bureaus of women and children affairs, Ministry of Justice, regional Bureaus of Justices, Ethiopian Police University, Ministry of Education and Central Statistics Agency.
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs): Association for Women's Sanctuary and Development (AWSAD), Agar Ethiopia Charitable Society, Ethiopia Orthodox Church-Development and Inter-Church Aid Commission (faith-based organization), Norwegian Church Aid, and Setaweet Yebego Adiragot Dirijit.
Main donors of the programme to date include:
Government of Denmark, through the Royal Danish Embassy in Ethiopia
Government of Sweden, though the Swedish International Development Agency(SIDA)
Government of Norway, through the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Ethiopia
Government of Netherlands, though the Embassy of Netherlands in Ethiopia
Irish Aid/the Embassy of Ireland in Ethiopia
Under the overall supervision of the UN Women Ethiopia Deputy Country Representative, the programme was managed by the UN Women ECO Ending Violence Against Women and Girls (EVAWG) unit. The team was composed of the following staff:
Programme manager (PM) with the overall responsibility of providing technical support and capacity-building for high quality implementation and guarantying high-quality financial management and reporting to UN Women and donors.
Two Programme officers and one Programme Associate with the role of supporting the PM and strengthen the programme's intended outputs in this area while also providing support to the programme partners.
The Programme responds to the Convention on Ending All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) general recommendation 35 (2017) which builds on general recommendation 19 (1992) and the concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (Forty-ninth session 11 — 29 July 2011). It also adheres to sustainable Development Goal 5 through the specific target on “Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.”
At the national level, it is in alignment with UN Women Strategic Plan, in particular the achievement of Impact 3 of the UN Women Strategic Plan 2017-2021 (i.e., that women and girls live a life free from violence), the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2017-2020, and United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) 2020-2025; as well as the ten years development plan 2020/21-2029/30 where “eliminating violence against women and children and harmful practices” was an area of focus
Duties and Responsibilities
Deliverable 1: Draft Inception Report
The Consultants must produce a draft inception report, displaying the results of the above-listed steps and tasks. The inception report must follow the structure as set out in Annex 1.
Prior to submission to the Evaluation Task manager (ETM) (on behalf of the EMG), the Consultant must ensure that it was internally quality controlled. The EMG will control the quality of the submitted draft inception report to ensure quality of the draft inception report is satisfactory (form and substance); once the draft inception report is cleared, the consultant will submit the draft inception report together with the executive summary.
In the event that the quality is unsatisfactory, the Consultants will be required to produce a new version of the draft inception report. The draft report will be in English
Deliverable 2: Final Inception Report
The Consultants must address all the comments and make appropriate amendments to the inception report prior to submission to the ETM on behalf of the EMG for review and approval.
For all comments, the Consultants indicates in writing how they have responded (“trail of comments”), using the proposed format set out in Annex 2. The trail of comments document is to be submitted to the ETM on behalf of the EMG at the same time as the updated inception report.
The inception report will be considered final upon approval by the EMG. The Final Inception Report will be in English
Deliverable 3: In-Country Debriefing
The Consultants will present preliminary data to key stakeholders, partners and beneficiaries, (in-person or virtually as needed) for discussion two days before completing the data collection phase in the field.
Note: The debriefing is needed to review data with selected key stakeholders, beneficiaries and partners to increase the Consultants’ understanding of data accumulated so far, and identify data issues or gaps that may be addressed/collected/revisited. The debriefing is not to be used to present preliminary findings as the data analysis is not yet completed and could mislead stakeholders.
Presentation material is to be submitted to the ETM on behalf of the prior to the debriefing session. Minutes and any supplementary material provided during the session are to be submitted one week after the session
Deliverable 4: Post Data Collection Workshop
The consultant will conduct a workshop session in Addis Ababa in blended modality (face-to-face and virtual) to present the preliminary findings of the evaluation to the ETM and EMG to seek comments and validation. The process will also support the formulation of the recommendations in a participatory way.
Presentation material is to be submitted to the ETM, on behalf of the EMG, at least five working days prior to the session. Minutes and any supplementary material provided during the session are to be submitted one week after the session.
Deliverable 5: Draft Report
The draft evaluation report must conform to the UNEG (2017) Norms and Standards for Evaluation or the OECD/DAC (2010) Quality Standards for Development Evaluation and follow the structure and instructions as set out in Annex 3, include an executive summary and includes all the relevant annexes.
Prior to submission to the ETM, on behalf of the EMG, the Consultants must ensure that the draft evaluation report has undergone an internal quality control process through the Consultant’s Evaluation Quality Assurance System (EQAS). If the quality of the draft evaluation report is deemed satisfactory by EMG (form and substance), the draft evaluation report will be translated and circulated to stakeholders as necessary for comments. In the event that the quality is unsatisfactory, the Consultants will be required to produce a new version of the draft evaluation report. The draft Report will be in English
The EMG is responsible for sharing the draft report and collecting stakeholders’ comments.
The Evaluation Report shall follow the structure detailed in the UN Women Evaluation Handbook (Box 18 Outline of Evaluation Report)
Deliverable 7: Final Report
The Consultants must address all the comments and make appropriate amendments to the evaluation report and draft work plan prior to submission to the ETM, on behalf of the EMG, for review and approval.
For each and every comment, the Consultants indicates in writing how they have responded (“trail of comments”), using the format set out in Annex 2. The trail of comments document is to be submitted at the same time as the updated evaluation report. The Final Report will be in English
The evaluation report will be considered final upon approval by the EMG.
The Final Report will include the actionable recommendations produced through the evaluation
Deliverable 8: Final presentation
Afterwards, the Consultants will prepare and conduct a workshop to present the findings, conclusions, recommendations and lessons of the evaluation in Addis Ababa/or virtual and at a time to be decided by the EMG.
The Consultants will conduct the presentation after EMG approval of the Final Report.
Deliverable 9: Evaluation communication
The consultant will also produce a PowerPoint presentation of the final key evaluation findings and recommendations, and a 2-pager on the final key findings (English), lessons learned and recommendations. in line with UN Women corporate branding guidelines
Respect for Diversity;
Awareness and Sensitivity Regarding Gender Issues;
Creative Problem Solving;
Flexibility and adaptivity
Excellent facilitation and communication skills;
Strong evaluation experience with UN agencies and programmes
Strong knowledge of women's rights, gender equality, women's empowerment and gender based violence
Results-based report writing skills
Specific technical knowledge of ending violence against women and girls, strategies to to prevent VAWG, provision of comprehensive services for survivors of VAWG, and legal and normative frameworks to protect the rights of women and girls from any form of violence.
Good understanding of the context of Ethiopia
Required Skills and Experience
Advanced Degree in Social Sciences, Development Studies, Law, Human rights, Gender/Women studies or other relevant field and with formal research skills.
At least five years of experience in conducting evaluations
A professional training in Monitoring and Evaluation and Results-Based Management is considered an asset.
High proficiency in English
Fluent in Amharic / local language