Following a military coup, free and fair elections were held in Niger in both 2011 and 2015, leading to democratically legitimised civilian governments. Nevertheless, attacks by terrorists and militant groups – especially by Boko Haram in the south – continue to pose a threat for internal security. Despite debt relief, financial aid and funding, the economic and social situation for the majority of the population remains dire. Stable economic growth of approximately 4.4 % barely makes any inroads into the poverty rate, especially because the population is growing rapidly by 4.1 % annually, a rate almost unequaled on the global scale. The reduction of poverty and the containment of population growth are therefore major challenges for Niger. Yet, the country also has potential: It is rich in natural resources, having large deposits of uranium for example.